Diferencias en la complejidad sintáctica y diversidad léxica de enunciados con distinta función pragmática en el habla dirigida a bebés argentinos / Differences in the syntactic complexity and lexical diversity of utterances with different pragmatic function in the speech addressed to Argentine babies

María Laura Ramírez, Maia Julieta Migdalek, Celia Renata Rosemberg


Resumen: Numerosos trabajos han estudiado las características lingüísticas e interactivas en el habla dirigida al niño (HDN) en tanto pueden incidir en el desarrollo del lenguaje infantil (HOFF-GINSBERG, 1986). Sin embargo, han sido muy pocos los estudios que han atendido a la relación entre estas propiedades del HDN, distintos teóricos han comenzado a enfatizar en la importancia de abordar el estudio del input lingüístico de modo multidimensional (ROWE; SNOW, 2020). Con el objetivo de atender a este vacío en la literatura, este trabajo analiza la relación entre las propiedades interactivas y las propiedades lingüísticas del habla dirigida al niño. Para esto, se estudia la diversidad léxica y la complejidad sintáctica de enunciados con distintas funciones pragmáticas en el habla dirigida a 40 niños y niñas viviendo en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Los resultados mostraron que los comentarios presentaban una mayor complejidad sintáctica y mayor diversidad léxica que los pedidos de acción y los pedidos de respuesta verbal. A su vez, los pedidos de acción se caracterizaban por un vocabulario más diverso que los pedidos de respuesta verbal. Las medidas de efecto del análisis de varianza, dan cuenta de que la función pragmática de los enunciados explica un porcentaje mayor de la varianza para la diversidad léxica que para la complejidad de los enunciados.

Palabras clave: función pragmática; diversidad léxica; complejidad sintáctica; entorno lingüístico; habla dirigida al niño.

Abstract: Several studies have analysed the linguistic and interactive characteristics of child-directed speech (HDN) as they can influence children’s linguistic development (HOFF-GINSBERG, 1986). However, very few studies have addressed the relationship between these properties of HDN, different theorists are starting to emphasize the importance of approaching the study of linguistic input in a multidimensional way (ROWE; SNOW, 2020). In order to address this gap in the literature, this work analyzes the relationship between the interactive properties and the linguistic properties of child-directed speech. To this end, the lexical diversity and syntactic complexity of sentences with different pragmatic functions in speech addressed to 40 children living in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires are studied. Results showed that comments presented greater syntactic complexity and greater lexical diversity than action requests and verbal response requests. Requests for action were characterized by a more diverse vocabulary than requests for verbal response. The effect measures of the variance’s analysis show that the pragmatic function of the utterances explains a higher percentage of the variance for lexical diversity than for syntactic complexity of the utterances.

Keywords: pragmatic function; lexical diversity; syntactic complexity; linguistic environment; child-directed speech.


función pragmática; diversidad léxica; complejidad sintáctica; entorno lingüístico; habla dirigida al niño


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.30.1.293-318


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