La composición léxica del vocabulario infantil en niños de cuatro años de distintos grupos sociales y su relación con el entorno lingüístico/Lexical composition of the vocabulary of four-year-old children from different social groups and its relationship to the linguistic environment

Macarena Sol Quiroga, Celia Renata Rosemberg, Florencia Alam

Abstract


Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la composición léxica del vocabulario productivo infantil y su relación con el input lingüístico al que los niños de cuatro años de distintos grupos sociales están expuestos. A partir de un corpus de habla espontánea, se seleccionaron las transcripciones de 19 niños de dos grupos sociales distintos (n= 38), correspondientes a 456 horas de grabación, y se analizó la cantidad total y los tipos distintos de sustantivos, adjetivos y verbos, tanto en la producción infantil como
en el input lingüístico. El análisis de la varianza mostró que en ambos casos hubo una mayor cantidad de tipos distintos de sustantivos respecto a las demás palabras, pero una mayor cantidad total de verbos. Las regresiones beta con el vocabulario infantil como variable dependiente indicaron que la pertenencia al grupo socioeconómico fue un predictor de tipos distintos de todas las clases de palabras y de cantidad solo de adjetivos; la presencia de cada clase de palabra en el input fue predictor de la cantidad de las tres clases de palabras, y de mayor cantidad de tipos distintos de adjetivos y verbos. Estos resultados muestran la complejidad de las experiencias tempranas infantiles y la relevancia de atender a los distintos contextos en los que los niños adquieren el lenguaje.


Palabras clave: vocabulario; composición léxica; producción infantil; entorno lingüístico.


Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the lexical composition of child expressive vocabulary and its relationship with linguistic input of four-year-old children from different social backgrounds. From a spontaneous speech corpus, we analyzed the transcriptions of 19 children from two different social backgrounds (n = 38), corresponding to 456 hours of recordings, and we analyzed the lexical diversity and quantity of nouns, adjectives, and verbs, both in child vocabulary and input they were
exposed to. The analysis of variance showed that in both cases there was a greater noun type quantity compared to the other word classes, but a greater token quantity of verbs. Beta regressions with child vocabulary as a dependent variable showed that belonging to a socioeconomic group was a predictor of the three lexical classes’ types, but only of the adjective’s tokens; the presence of each word class in the linguistic input was a
predictor of all three word classes, and only of adjective and verb types. These results manifest the complexity of early childhood experiences and the need to pay attention to the various contexts where children acquire language.


Keywords: vocabulary; lexical composition; child production; linguistic input.


Keywords


vocabulario; composición léxica; producción infantil; entorno Lingüístico; vocabulary; lexical composition; child production; linguistic input.

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