Orthographic effects in speech production: A psycholinguistic study with adult Brazilian-Portuguese English bilinguals / Efeitos ortográficos na produção da fala: um estudo psicolinguístico com adultos bilíngues falantes de Português Brasileiro e Inglês

Alison Roberto Goncalves, Rosane Silveira


Abstract: The present study inquired whether orthography affects phonological processing of English as an L2. To do so, a lexicon that simulated opaque and transparent grapho-phonic English relations in nuclear position was developed (e.g., keet, deit, toud). Bilingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese and English were compelled to learn this new lexicon through a repeated-exposure training paradigm in which they were introduced to the lexicon phonological forms associated with their visual forms, and then to the phonological forms associated with their visual and orthographic forms. After undergoing training, subjects were tested with a Timed Picture Naming task to investigate orthographic recruitment in spoken production. Results suggested that orthography influenced naming of the trained words, indicating that the process of converting a visual input into its phono-articulatory representations for production involves orthographic activation. Such a finding was interpreted as a frequency effect of the grapho-phonic combination, which resulted in lack of skill to compute this operation in the sublexical route. Overall, the presence of orthographic effects in this task can be interpreted as evidence for such a system to function as a strategic mechanism that aids lexical encoding and, consequently, influences lexical access in initial stages of instructed language acquisition.

Keywords: phonological acquisition; orthography; psycholinguistics.

Resumo: Este estudo investigou se a ortografia afeta o processamento fonológico do inglês como L2. Para tal, um léxico que simulava as relações grafo-fônicas opacas e transparentes do inglês em posição nuclear (e.g., keet, deit, toud) foi desenvolvido. Bilíngues falantes de português brasileiro e de inglês participaram de um treinamento para adquirir este novo léxico com o paradigma de exposição repetida, através do qual foram introduzidas as formas fonológicas deste léxico associadas às suas formas visuais e, depois, as formas fonológicas associadas às suas formas visuais e ortográficas. Após a fase de treinamento, os participantes foram testados com uma tarefa temporalizada de nomeação de figuras para investigar efeitos do recrutamento ortográfico na produção da fala. Os resultados sugeriram que a ortografia influenciou a nomeação das palavras aprendidas no treinamento, indicando que o processo de conversão de uma representação visual para suas representações fonoarticulatórias na produção da fala em L2 envolve a ativação ortográfica. Este resultado foi interpretado como um efeito de frequência da combinação grafo-fônica, que resultou em inabilidade para executar esta operação na rota sublexical. Assim, a presença de efeitos ortográficos nessa tarefa pode ser interpretada como evidência de que o sistema ortográfico pode funcionar como um mecanismo estratégico que auxilia na codificação lexical e, consequentemente, influencia o acesso lexical nos estágios iniciais da aquisição da linguagem em meios instrucionais.

Palavras-chave: aquisição fonológica; ortografia; psicolinguística.


phonological acquisition; orthography; psycholinguistics; aquisição fonológica; ortografia; psicolinguística.

Full Text:



BAPTISTA, B. O. Adult Phonetic Learning of a Second Language Vowel System. In: BAPTISTA, B. O.; WATKINS, M. A. (org.). English with a Latin Beat: Studies in Portuguese/Spanish – English Interphonology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2006. p. 19-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.31.03bap

BARTOLOTTI, J.; MARIAN, V. Bilinguals’ Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language. Language Learning, v. 67, n. 1, p. 110-140, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12200

BASSETTI, B.; ATKINSON, N. Effects of Orthographic Forms on Pronunciation in Experienced Instructed Second Language Learners. Orthographic Effects in Second Language Phonology. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 36, n. 1, p. 67-91, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000435

BASSETTI, B.; ESCUDERO, P.; HAYES-HARB, R. Second Language Phonology at the Interface between Acoustic and Orthographic Input. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 36, n. 1, p. 1-6, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000393

BAUER, L. English Phonotatics. English Language and Linguistics, Cambridge, v. 19, n. 3, p. 437-475, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674315000179

BERTELSON, P.; VROOMEN, J.; GELDER, B. Visual Recalibration of Auditory Speech Identification: A McGurk Aftereffect. Psychological Science, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 6, p. 592-597, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1470.x

CORTESE, M. J.; SIMPSON, G. B. Regularity Effects in Word Naming: What Are They? Memory & Cognition, [S.l.], v. 28, p. 1269-1276, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211827

CUTLER, A. Representation of Second Language Phonology. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 36, n. 1, p. 115-128, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000459

CUTLER, A. The Abstract Representations in Speech Processing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, [S.l.], v. 61, n. 11, p. 1601-1619, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13803390802218542

CUTLER, A.; DAVIS, C. An Orthographic Effect in Phoneme Processing, and Its Limitations. Frontiers in Psychology, Brussels, Belgium, v. 3, n. 18, p. 1-7, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00018

DAMIAN, M. F. Effects of Orthography on Speech Production in a Form-Preparation Paradigm. Journal of Memory & Language, Egham, UK, v. 49, p. 119-132, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00008-1

DAMIAN, M. F. BOWERS, J. S.; STADTHAGEN-GONZALEZ, H.; SPALEK, K. Does Word Length Constrain the Spoken Production of Single Words? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, [S.l.], v. 36, p. 892-905, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019446

DAMIAN, M. F.; BOWERS, J. S. Effects of Orthography on Speech Production in a Form-Preparation Paradigm. Journal of Memory & Language, Egham, UK, v. 49, p. 119-132, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00008-1

DAMIAN, M. F.; BOWERS, J. S. Assessing the Role of Orthography in Speech Perception and Production: Evidence from Picture-Word Interference Tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, [S.l.], v. 21, p. 581-598, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09541440801896007

DZULKIFLI, M. A.; MUSTAFAR, M. F. The Influence of Colour on Memory Performance: A Review. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, v. 20, n. 2, p. 3-9, 2013.

EDERNER, V. D.; BURNHAM, D. K. The Role of Audiovisual Speech and Orthographic Information in Nonnative Speech Production. Language Learning, [S.l.], v. 55, n. 2, p. 191-228, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00303.x

ESCUDERO, P. Orthography Plays a Limited Role when Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: The Case of Spanish and English Learners of Novel Dutch Words. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 36, n. 1, p. 7-22, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S014271641400040X

ESCUDERO, P. Speech Processing in Bilingual and Multilingual Listeners: The Interrelation between Sound Perception and Word Recognition. In: COHN, A. C.; FOUGERON, C.; HUFFMAN, M. K. (org.). The Handbook of Laboratory Phonology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 407-417.

ESCUDERO, P.; HAYES-HARB, R.; MITTERER, H. Novel L2 Words and Assymetric Lexical Access. Journal of Phonetics, [S.l.], v. 36, n. 2, p. 345-360, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.11.002

ESCUDERO, P.; SIMON, E.; MULAK, K. Learning Words in a New Language: Orthography Doesn’t always Help. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition, Cambridge, v. 17, n. 2, p. 384-395, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000436

ESCUDERO, P.; WANROOIJ, K. The Effect of L1 Orthography on L2 Vowel Perception. Language and Speech, [S.l.], v. 53, n. 3, p. 343-365, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830910371447

FERNÁNDEZ, E. M.; CAIRNS, H. S. Fundamentals of Psycholinguistics. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

FORSTER, K. I.; FORSTER, J. C. DMDX: A Windows Display Program with Millisecond Accuracy. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, [S.l.], v. 35, p. 116-124, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195503

FROST, R. Orthography and Phonology: The Psychological Reality of Orthographic Depth. In: NOONAN, M.; DOWNING, P.; LIMA, S. (org.). The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1992. p. 255-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.21.19fro

FROST, R. Towards a Strong Phonological Theory of Visual Word Recognition: True Issues and False Trails. Psychological Bulletin, Washington, v. 123, p. 71-99, 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.123.1.71

FROST, R. Orthographic Systems and Skilled Word Recognition Processes in Reading. In: HULME, C.; SNOWLING, M. (org.). The Science of Reading: A Handbook. Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 2005. p. 272-295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757642.ch15

FROST, R.; KATZ, L. Orthographic Depth and the Interaction of Visual and Auditory Processing in Word Recognition. Memory & Cognition, [S.l.], v. 17, p. 302-311, 1989. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03198468

FROST, R.; ZIEGLER, J. C. Speech and Spelling Interaction: The Interdependence of Visual and Auditory Word Recognition. In: GASKELL, M. G. (org.). The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. p. 107-118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198568971.013.0007

GONÇALVES, A. R. The Orthographic Signature in Second Language Speech Acquisition and Processing. 2017. 156f. Tese (Doutorado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017.

HAN, J. I.; KIM, J. Y. The Influence of Orthography on the Production of Alphabetic, Second-Language Allophones by Speakers of a Non-Alphabetic Language. Psycholinguist Research, [S.l.], v. 46, n. 4, p. 963-982, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-016-9474-7

HAYES-HARB, R.; NICOL, J.; BARKER, J. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input. Language and Speech, [S.l.], v. 53, n. 3, p. 367-381, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830910371460

JIANG, N. Conducting Reaction Time Research in Second Language Studies. New York: Routledge, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203146255

KATZ, L.; FROST, R. The Reading Process is Different for Different Orthographies: The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis. In: FROST, R.; KATZ, L. (org.). Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland Press, 1992. p. 67-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)62789-2

KATZ, L.; FROST, S. Phonology Constrains the Internal Orthographic Representation. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 3/4, p. 297-332, 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011165407770

KOLINSKY, R. How Learning to Read Influences Language and Cognition. In: POLLATSEK, A.; TREIMAN, R. (org.). The Oxford Handbook of Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. p. 377-393.

KOLINSKY, R.; PATTAMADILOK, C.; MORAIS, J. The Impact of Orthographic Knowledge on Speech Processing. Ilha do Desterro, Florianópolis, v. 63, p. 161-186, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p161

LACHAUD C. M.; RENAUD, O. A Tutorial for Analysing Human Reaction Times: How to Filter Data, Manage Missing Values, and Choose a Statistical Model. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 32, p. 389-416, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716410000457

MARIAN, V.; BARTOLOTTI, J.; CHABAL, S.; SHOOK, A. CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities. PLoS ONE, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 8, [s.p.], 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043230

PROTOPAPAS, A. CheckVocal: A Program to Facilitate Checking the Accuracy and Response Time of Vocal Responses from DMDX. Behavior Research Methods, [S.l.], v. 39, n. 4, p. 859-862, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192979

PYTLYK, C. Shared Orthography: Do Shared Written Symbols Influence the Perception of L2 Sounds? The Modern Language Journal, [S.l.], v. 95, n. 4, p. 541-557, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01244.x

QU, Q.; DAMIAN, M. Orthographic Effects in Mandarin Spoken Language Production. Memory and Cognition, [S.l.], v. 47, p. 326-334, 2019a. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-018-0868-7

QU, Q.; DAMIAN, M. The Role of Orthography in Second-Language Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Tibetan Chinese Bilinguals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, [S.l.], v. 72, p. 2597-2604, 2019b. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021819850382

RASTLE, K.; MCCORMICK, S. F.; BAYLISS, L.; DAVIS, C. J. Orthography Influences the Perception and Production of Speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, [S.l.], v. 37, n. 6, p. 1588-1594, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024833

RAUBER, A. S. Perception and Production of English Vowels by Brazilian EFL Speakers. 2006. 218f. Tese (Doutorado em Letras) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2006.

SALETTA, M.; GOFFMAN, L.; BRENTARI, D. Reading Skill and Exposure to Orthography Influence Speech Production. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 37, n. 2, p. 411-434, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716415000053

SCHMALZ, X. et al. Unpredictability and Complexity of Print-to-Speech Correspondences Increase Reliance on Lexical Processes: More Evidence for the Orthographic Depth Hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, [S.l.], v. 28, n. 6, p. 658-672, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2016.1182172

SILVEIRA, R. L2 Production of English Word-Final Consonants: The Role of Orthography and Learner Profile Variables. Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, Campinas, v. 51, n. 1, p. 15-28, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-18132012000100002

SIMON, E.; CHAMBLESS, D.; ALVES, U. K. Understanding the Role of Orthography in the Acquisition of a Non-Native Vowel Contrast. Language Sciences, [S.l.], v. 32, n. 3, p. 380-394, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2009.07.001

SMILJANIC, R. Second-Language Speech Learning. In: COHN, A. C.; FOUGERON, C.; HUFFMAN, M. K. (org.). The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 417-425.

TAMMINEN, J.; DAVIS, M. H.; RASTLE, K. From Specific Examples to General Knowledge in Language Learning. Cognitive Psychology, [S.l.], v. 79, p. 1-39, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2015.03.003

TAYLOR J. S. H.; DAVIS, M. H.; RASTLE, K. Comparing and Validating Methods of Reading Instruction Using Behavioural and Neural Findings in an Artificial Orthography. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Bethesda, MD, v. 146, n. 6, p. 826-858, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000301

VAN HEUVEN, W. J. B.; DIJKSTRA, A.; GRAINGER, J. Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, [S.l.], v. 39, p. 458-483, 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1998.2584

VEIVO, O.; JÄRVIKIVI, J. Proficiency Modulates Early Orthographic and Phonological Processing in L2 Spoken Word Recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Cambridge, v. 16, n. 4, p. 864-883, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000600

VEIVO, O.; PORRETTA, V.; HYÖNÄ, J.; JÄRVIKIVI, J. Spoken Second Language Words Activate Native Language Orthographic Information in Late Second Language Learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 39, n. 5, p. 1011-1032, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716418000103

VENTURA, P.; KOLINSKY, R.; BRITO-MENDES, C.; MORAIS, J. Mental Representations of the Syllable Internal Structure Are Influenced by Orthography. Language and Cognitive Processes, [S.l.], v. 16, n. 4, p. 393-418, 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960042000184

YOUNG-SCHOLTEN, M.; LANGER, M. Orthographic Input in Second Language German: Evidence from Naturalistic Adult Learners’ Production. Applied Psycholinguistics, Cambridge, v. 36, n. 1, p. 93-114, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000447

ZIEGLER, J. C.; FERRAND, L. Orthography Shapes the Perception of Speech: The Consistency Effect in Auditory Word Recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, [S.l.], v. 5, p. 683-689, 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03208845

ZIEGLER, J. C.; FERRAND, L.; MONTANT, M. Visual Phonology: The Effects of Orthographic Consistency on Different Auditory Word Recognition Tasks. Memory & Cognition, [S.l.], v. 32, p. 732-741, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195863

ZIEGLER, J. C.; MUNEAUX, M. Orthographic Facilitation and Phonological Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition: A Developmental Study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, [S.l.], v. 14, p. 75-80, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03194031

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17851/2237-2083.28.3.1461-1494


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Alison Roberto Goncalves, Rosane Silveira

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

e - ISSN 2237-2083 


Licensed through  Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional